The temple of queen Nefertari is located to the north of the temple of her husband and the greatest pharaoh king in the ancient Egyptian history “Ramses” the second in the city of Luxor in south Egypt, the temple was built by King Ramses the second who devoted it to his wife and was mainly dedicated to the goddess Hathor who was worshiped by the Egyptian royal families around this time of the new kingdom era. The word ”Nefertari” in the ancient Egyptian language means the beautiful companion and so suggested the archaeologists that queen Nefertari was the first and the most beloved wife to King Ramses and she was the only one of his several wives who was pronounced as the queen of Egypt. Additionally, the tomb of Queen Nefertari which was discovered in 1904 was the largest and the most spectacular tomb ever discovered for any female of the Egyptian royal families.
The temple is smaller and more simple indeed than the great temple of the king and includes only one hypo style hall with colored scenes on the walls representing the king Ramses the second in a battle with the presence of his wife queen Nefertari. While on the back walls, some scenes of queen Nefertari in front of goddess Hathor who was worshiped by the royal Egyptian families at this time of the new kingdom era .
The tomb of “Meryre” in not only considered one of the largest tombs discovered of ancient Egypt, the tomb is also considered one of the most preserved tomb from the old era of ancient Egypt . The tomb was discovered in “Tal el Amarna” in south Egypt and represents an exotic type of architecture and was professionally designed with a lot of details which usually means a high rank of the tomb owner who is believed to be pharaoh “Meryre”. Although “Meryre” was not a royal family member, his position as a high priest of temple Aton is most likely the reason why he was buried as a king and in a royal tomb. Archaeologists couldn’t find an explanation why the tomb was never finished although “Meryre” had stayed in his position as a high priest of Aten temple for almost seven years which should be more than enough to get the job done on such a tomb. The unfinished work of “Meryrit” tomb remains a mystery.
The main chamber room was erected on four beautiful big columns which are taking the shape of the lotus flower. On the right hand wall, some curved colored scenes picturing the god Akhenaten casting some golden ornaments to the king “Meryre” while on the left hand wall, colored scenes representing the king “Meryre” on his chariot driving to the temple of Aten from his palace and followed by the queen, the princess and a big number of his personal guards.
The Ramesseum temple complex was built by King Ramses the second who is known as the last great pharaoh of Egypt during the new kingdom era. King Ramses ruled Egypt for almost sixty years form 1269 B.C to 1213 B.C. and he was well known for being both a great warrior and a great builder . The Ramesseum temple complex is situated in the city of Luxor in Upper Egypt on the west bank of the river Nile. Archaeologists suggest that the work on this complex had continued for almost twenty years.
At the front of the temple, there are two huge statues representing the king Ramses and a palace was built on the left side of the complex with a big window facing to the temple which the king was apparently using to greet his people during the religious occasions and present gifts to them. At the far back of the complex, there are few huge storage rooms which archaeologists believe that they were being used mainly to store grain and corn. The complex also contains a pylon at the entrance of the temple with curved colored images on it showing scenes for the battle of “Kadesh” which is one of the most popular battles in the ancient Egyptian history where king Ramses defeated the “Hettitis” and was leading the battle from his chariot. Additionally, the complex contains two court yards and a hypo style hall. Although not a lot of remains left from this complex, the Ramses temple complex gained popularity by being built by one of the greatest pharaohs ever who was always considered the most important figure in the royal families of ancient Egypt.
The tomb of king Aye was discovered in 1816 by Italian archaeologist “Bezoni” who curved his name and the discovery date of the tomb on one of the tombs entrance however, the tomb wasn’t completely excavated until 1908 by American archaeologist Howard Carter who cleared the tomb with his team in the same year. The tomb was discovered in the valley of the kings on the west bank of Luxor city in south Egypt , the tomb has become very popular because it is very similarin design to the tomb of king Tut which is the most popular tomb ever discovered in the ancient Egyptian history and most likely was designed by the same artist. Archaeologists suggest that the tomb was originally built for king Tut however, because of his unexpected sudden death before finishing the work on this tomb, king Tut was buried in another finished tomb few miles away from what is known now by the tomb of Aye.
The tomb of Aye is somehow different in design from the rest of the royal tomb during this era, it has a more simple design with only few decorations on the wall of the burial chamber which represen scenes from the book of death in Ancient Egypt. Additionally, few funerary equipment were discovered in the tomb and also a small number of fragments. The mummy of king Aye was never discovered and was most likely stolen or destroyed few hundred years ago by the tombs robbers as suggested by most archaeologists.
The step pyramid of Saqqara was erected at Saqqara which is located in Giza city few miles away from Cairo 4700 years ago by king “Zoser” who ruled Egypt from 2630 to 2611 B.C during the third dynasty of the ancient Egyptian history and archaeologists estimated the time required to finish the pyramid by almost 15 years. Saqqara is believed to be the burial ground for many royal family members in ancient Egypt during this time. The first pyramid was designed by the great architect “Imhotip” who was the only architect in the ancient Egyptian history to be honored by curving his name on the base of the king statues, “Imhotep” is believed to be the greatest architect ever in the ancient Egyptian history . The pyramid consists of six levels of decreasing sizes stones and on top of each other. The step pyramid is considered the first pyramid ever in the Egyptian history, the pyramid is 204 feet high and is considered the highest monument during it’s time and for almost few hundred years .The pyramid is one part of a complex that covers almost 40 acres and include some other temples, shaples and court yards. The burier chamber was discovered beneath the pyramid and was well hidden using amaze of tunnels to conceive the robbers.
The temple of” Kalabsha” was built on the west side of the Nile river 50 kilo meters to the south of Aswan city in south Egypt. With dimensions of 76 meters long and 22 meters wide, the temple in considered one of the largest free standing temples in south Egypt. The temple was built by king Thutmose the third almost 30 B.C during the Romanian era and some more work to the temple was added twenty years later by his son Amenhotep the second, the entire building is made of Nubian sand stone and was dedicated to the Nubian god “Merul”.
Because the Construction of the temple started during the early Romanian era and during the rule of the Roman Emperor Augustus, The temple represents a unique combination of imagery that represents Egyptian and Roman themes showing images of Roman emperors and pharaohs worshiping with the Egyptian gods. The temple was relocated with other ancient Egyptian temples during building the high dam in Egypt in 1970 by the UNESCO , the temple in now located in and island of New Kalabsha south of Aswan and is only accessible by boat .
The temple contains a small exotic chapel dedicated to Goddess “Hathor” and facing the lake which gives it a wonderful view. The temple also has four average size obelisks with the face of “Hathor” curved on them.
The colossi of Memmnon are two massive statutes in a seated position made of sand stone and were erected in 1350 B.C near the city of Luxor in south Egypt by pharaoh Amenhetep the third. Both statues are considered on of the main attractions on the west bank of river Nile in Luxor . Each statue is almost 18 meters in height and weigh almost 720 tons , the two statues are almost fifteen meters a part. Archaeologists believe that the statues were erected initially to stand as guards at the entrance of the temple of king “Amenhitep” which was covering almost 35 hectares making it the largest temple in Egypt at the time however, the remains of this temple are very limited and includes these two statues which are relatively damaged .
Both statues are relatively damaged due to bad weather and few earth quacks that occurred over few centuries . A mysterious story about the statues was that long ago, the statues used to create a moaning sound when the sun ray hits the statues every day in the morning , this moaning was believed to be the sound of the king calling his mother however, archaeologists believe that this sound disappeared during an attempt of the Romans to repair the statues. Not far from the statues, there are other smaller statues for two headless lion sphinx and also a smaller sphinx in a crocodile shape.
The unfinished obelisk was discovered in Aswan in south Egypt where is believed to be its original location, the obelisk is almost 42 meter high and 1200 ton weight which makes it the largest obelisk built in the ancient Egyptian history. Archaeologists believe that the work on the work on this obelisk has stopped at some point and it was never completed due to some visible cracks which appeared on the surface of the granite stone of the obelisk while craftsmen were working on it therefore, the pharaoh ordered the builders to stop working on it when they were almost done and the obelisk was never erected since then and it’s still lying down on the ground in its original location near the city of Aswan. If it was to be erected, Archaeologists believe that the unfinished obelisk would have been the largest the highest and the heaviest ancient Egyptian monument ever existed as it’s at least 10 meters higher than the highest finished obelisk ever discovered so far which currently stands in the Italian capital “Rome”.
The unfinished work on this obelisk provide some very rare and important information about the techniques , the stages and the tools used by the ancient Egyptian artisans and craftsmen during this time , it also provided archaeologists with some important information on where most obelisks were created and the obelisks erection techniques. Archaeologists couldn’t find any evidence to provide information about the pharaoh who built this obelisk or where it meant to be erected if the work was ever finished .
The town of royal tombs builders or “Deir Al madina” workmen village was discovered in the city of Luxor in the south side of Egypt, the town used to be the home for artisans, craftsmen and builders for the royal tombs of ancient Egypt between 1550 – 1080 B.C . Most houses in the town are identical in design and made of mud bricks, a typical house will usually consist of four to seven rooms and all houses are lined up to one side of the main street. Archeologists couldn’t verify exactly when this town was built however,some bricks found in the original wall were stamped with the name of king Tuthmose but there is no other evidences of him building the town .The town of royal tomb builders was discovered by Archaeologist Bernard Bruyere in 1922 few months after discovering the tomb of king Tut . The site became one of the most important discoveries in the ancient Egyptian history because it reveals a lot of the secrets about the builders of the royal tombs in ancient Egypt ; their social life and also the working and living conditions around this era of the Egyptian history, the site is also important because it captures the life of a large social class in the Egyptian society for almost four hundred years .
The tomb of king pharaoh Seti was discovered in October 1817 by the Italian archaeologist “Giovvani Battista” in the valley of the kings few days after discovering the tomb of king Ramsses who is believed to be king Seri’s father . The tomb became very popular because it’s considered the largest and deepest tomb discovered every in ancient Egypt history and probably in the history of mankind, the tomb is also considered a significant evidence of the high achievements in art and construction during this period, the decoration of this particular tomb was more refined and paints were more colorful . King Seti was the king of Egypt for almost thirteen years during 1291 – 1278 B.C as a successor to his father, king Ramssess who was one of the most popular pharaohs ever . the tomb is not the only amazing construction project during the era of king Seti, Archeologists believe that other remarkable projects were also completed during this time such as the temple of Abydos . unfortunately, the mummy of the king was not discovered inside the tomb however, it was found few decades later in the valley of the kings and was very well preserved and almost in a perfect condition .